Pilot Mobile Phone Intervention in Promoting Type 2 Diabetes Management in an Urban Area in Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ernest Asante, Victoria Bam, Abigail Kusi Amponsah Diji, Alberta Yemotsoo Lomotey, Agnes Owusu Boateng, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Eunice Oparebea Ansah, Dennis Adjei

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Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a nurse-led mobile phone call intervention on glycemic management and adherence to self-management practices among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Ghana.
Methods: This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to compare diabetes care as usual to a mobile phone call intervention delivered by nurses in addition to care as usual over a 12-week period in a tertiary referral hospital in Ghana. Sixty patients with T2DM were randomized to either the intervention or the control arm. The intervention group received up to 16 mobile phone calls (mean duration = 12 minutes) from a diabetes specialist nurse in addition to their care as usual. The control group received only care as usual. The primary outcome was the change in A1C over the 12-week period. The secondary outcomes were changes in self-reported adherence to medication and diabetes self-management measures over the 12-week period. Results: Mean baseline A1C was comparable between the intervention and control groups (9.54%, SD = 2.00% vs 9.07%, SD = 1.72%, P =.334). After 12 weeks, A1C was significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group. The difference in mean A1C in the control group rose by +0.26 ± 1.30% (P =.282; 95% CI, −0.23 to 0.75), whereas that of the intervention group reduced by −1.51 ± 2.67% (P =.004; 95% CI, −2.51 to −0.51). No improvements in self-management were recorded in the control group. In the intervention group, however, the only significant improvement was recorded in the area of foot care practices. Participant recruitment and retention were 100% without any attrition. About 87% (n = 26) of the intervention group completed at least 70% (≥11) of the calls. At the end of the trial, participants who received the intervention rated their satisfaction as 89.3% on average.
Conclusion: A mobile phone follow-up call by nurses emphasizing adherence to self-management practices is feasible and can improve short- to medium-term glycemic management among patients with T2DM.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)455-464
JournalDiabetes Educator
Issue number5
Early online date30 Sep 2020
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes

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