Plasmas in liquids and some of their applications in nanoscience

Bill Graham, Kenneth Stalder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Citations (Scopus)


The range of applications for plasmas in liquids, plasmas in contact with liquid surfaces and plasmas containing liquid drops is growing rapidly across a range of technologies. Here the focus is on plasmas where the electrodes are immersed in liquids and their applications in nanoscience. The physical phenomena in both high voltage (tens of kilovolts) and low voltage (a few hundred volts) plasmas in liquid are described together with a discussion of the plasma-induced chemistry. Studies show that in water the plasmas are formed in water vapour created by Joule heating as either channels in the liquid or as layers on the electrodes. The chemistry in these water vapour plasmas and at their interface with the liquid is discussed in the context of the highly reactive radicals produced, such as H and OH. The current use of a variety of plasmas-in-liquid systems in the area of nanoscience is discussed, with an emphasis on nanoparticle growth.
Original languageEnglish
Article number174037
JournalJournal Of Physics D-applied Physics
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 04 May 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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