A study was conducted by researchers to address the individuation of performance with electronic instruments. The researchers derived a working concept of style as distinct from structure in an activity, which was proposed as a useful framework for considering virtuosity and individuality in interactions with technology, including musical ones. The researchers proposed an alliance between constraint and the development of style. Another study was described, which explored the emergence of personal performance styles in experienced performers with a novel, constrained electronic musical instrument. The study aimed to represent aspects of a realistic situation within the new interfaces for musical expression (NIME) community where a performer needed to determine how to perform with a new instrument for which there was no established performance practice and instruction manual.