A study has been carried out to investigate whether the action of triclabendazole (TCBZ) against Fasciola hepatica is altered by inhibition of drug metabolism. The flavin monooxygenase system (FMO) was inhibited using methimazole (MTZ) to see whether a TCBZ-resistant isolate could be made more sensitive to TCBZ action. The Oberon TCBZ-resistant and Cullompton TCBZ-susceptible isolates were used for these experiments. The FMO system was inhibited by a 2-h pre-incubation in methimazole (100 mu M), then incubated for a further 22 h in NCTC medium containing either MTZ; MTZ+nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) (1 nM); MTZ+NADPH+TCBZ (15 mu g/ml); or MTZ+NADPH+triclabendazole sulphoxide (TCBZ.SO) (15 mu g/ml). Changes to fluke ultrastructure following drug treatment and metabolic inhibition were assessed using transmission electron microscopy. After treatment with either TCBZ or TCBZ.SO on their own, there was greater disruption to the TCBZ-susceptible than triclabedazole-resistant isolate. However, co-incubation with MTZ+TCBZ, but more particularly MTZ+TCBZ.SO, led to more severe changes to the TCBZ-resistant isolate than with each drug on its own, with severe swelling of the basal infolds and mucopolysaccharide masses in the syncytium, accompanied by a reduction in numbers of secretory bodies. The synthesis and production of secretory bodies in the tegumental cells was severely affected as well. With the TCBZ-susceptible Cullompton isolate, there was limited potentiation of drug action. The results support the concept of altered drug metabolism in TCBZ-resistant flukes, and this process may play a role in the development of drug resistance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases