Power Scaling of Uplink Massive MIMO Systems with Arbitrary-Rank Channel Means

Qi Zhang, Shi Jin, Kai-Kit Wong, Hongbo Zhu, Michail Matthaiou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

475 Citations (Scopus)


This paper investigates the uplink achievable rates of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems in Ricean fading channels, using maximal-ratio combining (MRC) and zero-forcing (ZF) receivers, assuming perfect and imperfect channel state information (CSI). In contrast to previous relevant works, the fast fading MIMO channel matrix is assumed to have an arbitrary-rank deterministic component as well as a Rayleigh-distributed random component. We derive tractable expressions for the achievable uplink rate in the large-antenna limit, along with approximating results that hold for any finite number of antennas. Based on these analytical results, we obtain the scaling law that the users' transmit power should satisfy, while maintaining a desirable quality of service. In particular, it is found that regardless of the Ricean K-factor, in the case of perfect CSI, the approximations converge to the same constant value as the exact results, as the number of base station antennas, M, grows large, while the transmit power of each user can be scaled down proportionally to 1/M. If CSI is estimated with uncertainty, the same result holds true but only when the Ricean K-factor is non-zero. Otherwise, if the channel experiences Rayleigh fading, we can only cut the transmit power of each user proportionally to 1/√M. In addition, we show that with an increasing Ricean K-factor, the uplink rates will converge to fixed values for both MRC and ZF receivers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966–98
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Issue number5
Early online date16 May 2014
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • cs.IT
  • math.IT


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