It is projected that the electric vehicle will become a dominant method of transportation within future road infrastructure. Moreover, the electric vehicle is expected to form an additional role in power systems in terms of electrical storage and load balancing. This paper considers the latter role of the electric vehicle and its impact on the steady-state stability of power systems, particularly in the context of large-scale electric vehicle integration. The paper establishes a model framework which examines four major issues: electric vehicle capacity forecasting; optimization of an object function; electric vehicle station siting and sizing; and steady-state stability. A numerical study has been included which uses projected United Kingdom 2020 power system data with results which indicate that the electric vehicle capacity forecasting model proposed in this paper is effective to describe electric vehicle charging and discharging profiles. The proposed model is used to establish criteria for electric vehicle station siting and sizing and to determine steady-state stability using a real model of a small-scale city power system.
- capacity forecasting
- electric vehicle
- stead-state analysis
Zhou, B., Littler, T., Meegahapola, L., & Zhang, H. (2016). Power System Steady-State Analysis with Large-Scale Electric Vehicle Integration. Energy, 115(1), 289-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.08.096