Predicting Outcomes from Engagement With Specific Components of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention With Financial Incentives: Process Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Background: Investigating participant engagement and nonusage attrition can help identify the likely active ingredients of electronic health interventions. Research on engagement can identify which intervention components predict health outcomes. Research on nonusage attrition is important to make recommendations for retaining participants in future studies.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate engagement and nonusage attrition in the Physical Activity Loyalty (PAL) scheme, a 6-month complex physical activity intervention in workplaces in Northern Ireland. The intervention included financial incentives with reward redemption and self-regulation techniques. Specific objectives were (1) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted physical activity at 6 months, (2) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted targeted mediators at 6 months, and (3) to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition for participants recording daily activity via the PAL scheme physical activity monitoring system and logging onto the website.

Methods: Physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 months using pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701, Japan). Markers of engagement and website use, monitoring system use, and reward redemption were collected throughout the scheme. Random-effects generalized least-squares regressions determined whether engagement with specific intervention components predicted 6-month physical activity and mediators. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition (days until first 2-week lapse).

Results: A multivariable generalized least-squares regression model (n=230) showed that the frequency of hits on the website’s monitoring and feedback component (regression coefficient [b]=50.2; SE=24.5; P=.04) and the percentage of earned points redeemed for financial incentives (b=9.1; SE=3.3; P=.005) were positively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. The frequency of hits on the discussion forum (b=−69.3; SE=26.6; P=.009) was negatively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. Reward redemption was not related to levels of more internal forms of motivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models identified several baseline predictors associated with nonusage attrition. These included identified regulation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.97), recovery self-efficacy (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), and perceived workplace environment safety (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) for using the physical activity monitoring system. The EuroQoL health index (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.91), financial motivation (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99), and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities in the workplace environment (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) were associated with website nonusage attrition.

Conclusions: Our results provide evidence opposing one of the main hypotheses of self-determination theory by showing that financial rewards are not necessarily associated with decreases in more internal forms of motivation when offered as part of a complex multicomponent intervention. Identifying baseline predictors of nonusage attrition can help researchers to develop strategies to ensure maximum intervention adherence.
LanguageEnglish
Article number11394
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Volume21
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Apr 2019

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Internet
Cluster Analysis
Motivation
Reward
Randomized Controlled Trials
Workplace
Least-Squares Analysis
Health
Northern Ireland
Personal Autonomy
Self Efficacy
Proportional Hazards Models
Research
Japan
Research Personnel
Safety

Cite this

@article{c7a6d997b13a4ab3a2ffafb8952d651c,
title = "Predicting Outcomes from Engagement With Specific Components of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention With Financial Incentives: Process Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial",
abstract = "Background: Investigating participant engagement and nonusage attrition can help identify the likely active ingredients of electronic health interventions. Research on engagement can identify which intervention components predict health outcomes. Research on nonusage attrition is important to make recommendations for retaining participants in future studies.Objective: This study aimed to investigate engagement and nonusage attrition in the Physical Activity Loyalty (PAL) scheme, a 6-month complex physical activity intervention in workplaces in Northern Ireland. The intervention included financial incentives with reward redemption and self-regulation techniques. Specific objectives were (1) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted physical activity at 6 months, (2) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted targeted mediators at 6 months, and (3) to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition for participants recording daily activity via the PAL scheme physical activity monitoring system and logging onto the website.Methods: Physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 months using pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701, Japan). Markers of engagement and website use, monitoring system use, and reward redemption were collected throughout the scheme. Random-effects generalized least-squares regressions determined whether engagement with specific intervention components predicted 6-month physical activity and mediators. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition (days until first 2-week lapse).Results: A multivariable generalized least-squares regression model (n=230) showed that the frequency of hits on the website’s monitoring and feedback component (regression coefficient [b]=50.2; SE=24.5; P=.04) and the percentage of earned points redeemed for financial incentives (b=9.1; SE=3.3; P=.005) were positively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. The frequency of hits on the discussion forum (b=−69.3; SE=26.6; P=.009) was negatively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. Reward redemption was not related to levels of more internal forms of motivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models identified several baseline predictors associated with nonusage attrition. These included identified regulation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95{\%} CI 0.81-0.97), recovery self-efficacy (HR 0.88, 95{\%} CI 0.80-0.98), and perceived workplace environment safety (HR 1.07, 95{\%} CI 1.02-1.11) for using the physical activity monitoring system. The EuroQoL health index (HR 0.33, 95{\%} CI 0.12-0.91), financial motivation (HR 0.93, 95{\%} CI 0.87-0.99), and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities in the workplace environment (HR 0.96, 95{\%} CI 0.93-0.99) were associated with website nonusage attrition.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence opposing one of the main hypotheses of self-determination theory by showing that financial rewards are not necessarily associated with decreases in more internal forms of motivation when offered as part of a complex multicomponent intervention. Identifying baseline predictors of nonusage attrition can help researchers to develop strategies to ensure maximum intervention adherence.",
author = "Murray, {Jennifer M.} and French, {David P.} and Patterson, {Christopher C.} and Frank Kee and Aisling Gough and Jianjun Tang and Hunter, {Ruth F.}",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "19",
doi = "10.2196/11394",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
journal = "Journal of Medical Internet Research",
issn = "1439-4456",
publisher = "Journal of medical Internet Research",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Predicting Outcomes from Engagement With Specific Components of an Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention With Financial Incentives: Process Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

AU - Murray, Jennifer M.

AU - French, David P.

AU - Patterson, Christopher C.

AU - Kee, Frank

AU - Gough, Aisling

AU - Tang, Jianjun

AU - Hunter, Ruth F.

PY - 2019/4/19

Y1 - 2019/4/19

N2 - Background: Investigating participant engagement and nonusage attrition can help identify the likely active ingredients of electronic health interventions. Research on engagement can identify which intervention components predict health outcomes. Research on nonusage attrition is important to make recommendations for retaining participants in future studies.Objective: This study aimed to investigate engagement and nonusage attrition in the Physical Activity Loyalty (PAL) scheme, a 6-month complex physical activity intervention in workplaces in Northern Ireland. The intervention included financial incentives with reward redemption and self-regulation techniques. Specific objectives were (1) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted physical activity at 6 months, (2) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted targeted mediators at 6 months, and (3) to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition for participants recording daily activity via the PAL scheme physical activity monitoring system and logging onto the website.Methods: Physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 months using pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701, Japan). Markers of engagement and website use, monitoring system use, and reward redemption were collected throughout the scheme. Random-effects generalized least-squares regressions determined whether engagement with specific intervention components predicted 6-month physical activity and mediators. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition (days until first 2-week lapse).Results: A multivariable generalized least-squares regression model (n=230) showed that the frequency of hits on the website’s monitoring and feedback component (regression coefficient [b]=50.2; SE=24.5; P=.04) and the percentage of earned points redeemed for financial incentives (b=9.1; SE=3.3; P=.005) were positively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. The frequency of hits on the discussion forum (b=−69.3; SE=26.6; P=.009) was negatively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. Reward redemption was not related to levels of more internal forms of motivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models identified several baseline predictors associated with nonusage attrition. These included identified regulation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.97), recovery self-efficacy (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), and perceived workplace environment safety (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) for using the physical activity monitoring system. The EuroQoL health index (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.91), financial motivation (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99), and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities in the workplace environment (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) were associated with website nonusage attrition.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence opposing one of the main hypotheses of self-determination theory by showing that financial rewards are not necessarily associated with decreases in more internal forms of motivation when offered as part of a complex multicomponent intervention. Identifying baseline predictors of nonusage attrition can help researchers to develop strategies to ensure maximum intervention adherence.

AB - Background: Investigating participant engagement and nonusage attrition can help identify the likely active ingredients of electronic health interventions. Research on engagement can identify which intervention components predict health outcomes. Research on nonusage attrition is important to make recommendations for retaining participants in future studies.Objective: This study aimed to investigate engagement and nonusage attrition in the Physical Activity Loyalty (PAL) scheme, a 6-month complex physical activity intervention in workplaces in Northern Ireland. The intervention included financial incentives with reward redemption and self-regulation techniques. Specific objectives were (1) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted physical activity at 6 months, (2) to determine whether engagement in specific intervention components predicted targeted mediators at 6 months, and (3) to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition for participants recording daily activity via the PAL scheme physical activity monitoring system and logging onto the website.Methods: Physical activity was assessed at baseline and 6 months using pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker CW-701, Japan). Markers of engagement and website use, monitoring system use, and reward redemption were collected throughout the scheme. Random-effects generalized least-squares regressions determined whether engagement with specific intervention components predicted 6-month physical activity and mediators. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to investigate predictors of nonusage attrition (days until first 2-week lapse).Results: A multivariable generalized least-squares regression model (n=230) showed that the frequency of hits on the website’s monitoring and feedback component (regression coefficient [b]=50.2; SE=24.5; P=.04) and the percentage of earned points redeemed for financial incentives (b=9.1; SE=3.3; P=.005) were positively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. The frequency of hits on the discussion forum (b=−69.3; SE=26.6; P=.009) was negatively related to 6-month pedometer steps per day. Reward redemption was not related to levels of more internal forms of motivation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models identified several baseline predictors associated with nonusage attrition. These included identified regulation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.97), recovery self-efficacy (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98), and perceived workplace environment safety (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.11) for using the physical activity monitoring system. The EuroQoL health index (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.91), financial motivation (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99), and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities in the workplace environment (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) were associated with website nonusage attrition.Conclusions: Our results provide evidence opposing one of the main hypotheses of self-determination theory by showing that financial rewards are not necessarily associated with decreases in more internal forms of motivation when offered as part of a complex multicomponent intervention. Identifying baseline predictors of nonusage attrition can help researchers to develop strategies to ensure maximum intervention adherence.

U2 - 10.2196/11394

DO - 10.2196/11394

M3 - Article

VL - 21

JO - Journal of Medical Internet Research

T2 - Journal of Medical Internet Research

JF - Journal of Medical Internet Research

SN - 1439-4456

IS - 4

M1 - 11394

ER -