Preemergence signatures of horizontal divergent flows in solar active regions

T. Rees-Crockford*, C. J. Nelson, M. Mathioudakis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Downloads (Pure)


Solar active regions (ARs) play a fundamental role in driving many of the geoeffective eruptions, which propagate into the solar system. However, we are still unable to consistently predict where and when ARs will occur across the solar disk by identifying preemergence signatures in observables such as the Doppler velocity (without using helioseismic methods). Here we aim to determine the earliest time at which preemergence signatures, the horizontal divergent flow (HDF) in particular, can be confidently detected using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. Initially, we follow previous studies using the thresholding method, which searches for significant increases in the number of pixels that display a specific line-of-sight velocity. We expand this method to more velocity windows and conduct a basic parameter study investigating the effect of cadence on the inferred results. Our findings agree with previous studies with 37.5% of ARs displaying an HDF, with average lead times between the HDF and flux emergence of 58 minutes. We present a new potential signature of flux emergence, which manifests as cadence-independent transient disruptions to the amplitudes of multiple velocity windows and recover potential preemergence signatures for 10 of the 16 ARs studied, with lead times of 60–156 minutes. Several effects can influence both the estimated times of both HDF and flux emergence suggesting that one may need to combine Doppler and magnetic field data to get a reliable indicator of continued flux emergence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109
Number of pages16
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Early online date25 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2022


  • 360
  • The Sun and the Heliosphere


Dive into the research topics of 'Preemergence signatures of horizontal divergent flows in solar active regions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this