Prevalence of Refractive Error, Presbyopia, and Spectacle Coverage in Bogotá, Colombia: A Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error

Luisa Casas Luque, Kovin Naidoo, Ving Fai Chan, Juan Carlos Silva, Thomas John Naduvilath, Fernando Peña, Myriam Mayorga, Leonardo Ramírez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
59 Downloads (Pure)


SIGNIFICANCE: Uncorrected refractive error is the leading cause of visual impairment; therefore, reducing its prevalence is important worldwide. For two decades, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of refractive error in Latin America. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the current prevalence of refractive error, presbyopia, spectacle coverage, barriers to uptake refractive services, and spectacle correction in people 15 years and older in Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted using 50 randomly selected clusters from 10 districts of Bogotá reflecting the socioeconomic status of the city. Respondents 15 years and older were interviewed and underwent standardized clinical eye examinations. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error, spectacle coverage, and visual impairment were standardized to 2015 age-sex population distribution of Bogotá and further analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2886 subjects (90% of 3206 eligible subjects) participated in the study; 39.1% were male and 60.9% were female in the age range of 15 to 96 years, with a median age of 46 years (interquartile range, 45 to 54 years). Age- and sex-standardized prevalence of visual impairment was 19.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.8 to 20.8%). Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error was 12.5% (95% CI, 11.3 to 13.7%). Prevalence of presbyopia among participants 35 years and older was 55.2% (95% CI, 52.9 to 57.4%). Spectacle coverage was 50.9% for distance vision, and it was 33.9% for presbyopia. Main barrier to spectacle uptake was a limitation in affording spectacles because of economic factors (29.5%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a current estimate of refractive error using the Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error for Colombia and the Latin American region. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error and presbyopia was high, and the barriers to spectacle uptake were higher in the lowest socioeconomic strata. The results obtained in the present study will help in making evidence-based decisions related to eye care service delivery in Colombia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-586
Number of pages8
JournalOptometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Optometry


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