Persistence of the asymmetrical tonic neck reﬂex (ATNR) was examined in children with partial hearing (aged 6–12 years). Core literacy skills were also assessed. Three groups of children were selected from three schools with special units for children with partial hearing. All children completed an upright ATNR test protocol and standardized tests of reading and spelling. Children with partial hearing had signiﬁcant levels of ATNR persistence, and signiﬁcant reading and spelling difﬁculties. The ﬁndings suggest that persistence of an early sub-cortical reﬂex system may be associated with some of the motor and cognitive difﬁculties experienced by children with partial hearing.
- deaf education