In this study, micro/nanoscaled hierarchical hybrid coatings containing titanium (Ti) phosphate and Ti oxide have been fabricated with the aim of promoting osseointegration of Ti-based implants. Three representative surface coatings, namely, micro/nanograss Ti (P-G-Ti), micro/nanoclump Ti, (P-C-Ti), and micro/nanorod Ti (P-R-Ti), have been produced. In-depth investigations into the coating surface morphology, topography, chemical composition, and the surface/cell interaction have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, contact-angle measurement, and protein adsorption assay. In addition, in vitro performance of the coating (cell proliferation, adhesion, and differentiation) has been evaluated using rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), and in vivo assessments have been carried out based on a rat tibia implantation model. All the hybrid coating modified implants demonstrated enhanced protein adsorption and BMSC viability, adhesion and differentiation, with P-G-Ti showing the best bioactivity among all samples. Subsequent in vivo osseointegration tests confirmed that P-G-Ti has induced a much stronger interfacial bonding with the host tissue, indicated by the 2-fold increase in the ultimate shear strength and over 6-fold increase in the maximum push-out force compared to unmodified Ti implants. The state-of-the-art coating technology proposed for Ti-based implants in this study holds great potential in advancing medical devices for next-generation healthcare technology.