Prospective, Randomized Assessment of Transfer of Training (ToT) and Transfer Effectiveness Ratio (TER) of Virtual Reality Simulation Training for Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition

Anthony G Gallagher, Neal E Seymour, Julie-Anne Jordan-Black, Brendan P Bunting, Kieran McGlade, Richard Martin Satava

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: We assessed the effectiveness of ToT from VR laparoscopic simulation training in 2 studies. In a second study, we also assessed the TER. ToT is a detectable performance improvement between equivalent groups, and TER is the observed percentage performance differences between 2 matched groups carrying out the same task but with 1 group pretrained on VR simulation. Concordance between simulated and in-vivo procedure performance was also assessed.

Design: Prospective, randomized, and blinded.

Participants: In Study 1, experienced laparoscopic surgeons (n = 195) and in Study 2 laparoscopic novices (n = 30) were randomized to either train on VR simulation before completing an equivalent real-world task or complete the real-world task only.

Results: Experienced laparoscopic surgeons and novices who trained on the simulator performed significantly better than their controls, thus demonstrating ToT. Their performance showed a TER between 7% and 42% from the virtual to the real tasks. Simulation training impacted most on procedural error reduction in both studies (32- 42%). The correlation observed between the VR and real-world task performance was r > 0·96 (Study 2).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1025-1031
JournalAnnals of Surgery
Volume257
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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