Protection of Omicron sub-lineage infection against reinfection with another Omicron sub-lineage

Hiam Chemaitelly, Houssein H Ayoub, Peter Coyle, Patrick Tang, Hadi M Yassine, Hebah A Al-Khatib, Maria K Smatti, Mohammad R Hasan, Zaina Al-Kanaani, Einas Al-Kuwari, Andrew Jeremijenko, Anvar Hassan Kaleeckal, Ali Nizar Latif, Riyazuddin Mohammad Shaik, Hanan F Abdul-Rahim, Gheyath K Nasrallah, Mohamed Ghaith Al-Kuwari, Adeel A Butt, Hamad Eid Al-Romaihi, Mohamed H Al-ThaniAbdullatif Al-Khal, Roberto Bertollini, Laith J Abu-Raddad

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Abstract

There is significant genetic distance between SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages. This study investigates immune protection of infection with one sub-lineage against reinfection with the other sub-lineage in Qatar during a large BA.1 and BA.2 Omicron wave, from December 19, 2021 to March 21, 2022. Two national matched, retrospective cohort studies are conducted to estimate effectiveness of BA.1 infection against reinfection with BA.2 (N = 20,994; BA.1-against-BA.2 study), and effectiveness of BA.2 infection against reinfection with BA.1 (N = 110,315; BA.2-against-BA.1 study). Associations are estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regression models after multiple imputation to assign a sub-lineage status for cases with no sub-lineage status (using probabilities based on the test date). Effectiveness of BA.1 infection against reinfection with BA.2 is estimated at 94.2% (95% CI: 89.2-96.9%). Effectiveness of BA.2 infection against reinfection with BA.1 is estimated at 80.9% (95% CI: 73.1-86.4%). Infection with the BA.1 sub-lineage appears to induce strong, but not full immune protection against reinfection with the BA.2 sub-lineage, and vice versa, for at least several weeks after the initial infection.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4675
JournalNature Communications
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 09 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Reinfection

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