Many reviews have been written on protein kinase B/Akt focusing on its history dating back from the isolation of the Akt8 transforming murine leukemia virus by Staal in 1977, to the co-discovery of the Akt1 gene by the three groups in 1991 (reviewed in 7). There are currently over 22,000 publications in the PubMed database with "Akt" as a keyword - these publications describe a wealth of diverse data on the physiological functions of Akt isoforms. Many of these publications describe roles of Akt ranging from its requirement for cellular processes such as glucose uptake, cell survival and angiogenesis to roles in diseases such as cancer and ischaemia (22). This review will focus on the evidence for Akt signaling in different kidney cells during diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy (DN).
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