Protocol for a systematic review of the application of the kidney failure risk equation and Oxford classification in estimating prognosis in IgA nephropathy

Michael Toal*, Ruth Fergie, Michael Quinn, Christopher Hill, Ciaran O'Neill, Alexander P. Maxwell

*Corresponding author for this work

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IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Outcomes are highly variable and predicting risk of disease progression at an individual level is challenging. Accurate risk stratification is important to identify individuals most likely to benefit from treatment. The Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) has been extensively validated in CKD populations and predicts the risk of ESRD at 2 and 5 years using non-invasive tests; however, its predictive performance in IgAN is unknown. The Oxford classification (OC) describes pathological features demonstrated on renal biopsy that are associated with adverse clinical outcomes that may also inform prognosis. The objective of this systematic review is to compare the KFRE with the OC in determining prognosis in IgAN.

A systematic review will be conducted and reported in line with PRISMA guidelines (PRISMA-P checklist attached as Additional file 1). Inclusion criteria will be cohort studies that apply the KFRE or OC to determine the risk of CKD progression or ESRD in individuals with IgAN. Multiple databases will be searched in duplicate to identify relevant studies, which will be screened first by title, then by abstract and then by full-text analysis. Results will be collated for comparison. Risk of bias and confidence assessments will be conducted independently by two reviewers, with a third reviewer available if required.

Identifying individuals at the highest risk of progression to ESRD is challenging in IgAN, due to the heterogeneity of clinical outcomes. Risk prediction tools have been developed to guide clinicians; however, it is imperative that these aids are accurate and reproducible. The OC is based on observations made by specialist renal pathologists and may be open to observer bias, therefore the utility of prediction models incorporating this classification may be diminished, particularly as in the future novel biomarkers may be incorporated into clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Article number122
Number of pages6
JournalSystematic Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 04 May 2024


  • IgA nephropathy
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Renal biopsy
  • kidney failure
  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • End-stage Renal Disease
  • Disease Progression
  • Oxford Classification
  • Prediction Tool
  • Kidney Failure Risk Equation
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic
  • Glomerulonephritis, IGA
  • Biopsy
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic


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