Psychometric Properties of the Cardiac Depression Scale: A Systematic Review

Carolina A. Chavez, Chantal F. Ski*, David R. Thompson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The prevalence of depression is high in cardiac patients. Depression has a significant impact on quality of life, adherence to therapy, and an independent effect on prognosis. The Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) is the only instrument designed to measure depression in cardiac patients. This study systematically reviewed the psychometric properties of the CDS for screening of depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science was performed using the search term Cardiac Depression Scale in the title or abstract. Eligible studies were those that assessed reliability, validity or diagnostic accuracy of the CDS in patients with CHD. Methodological quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 and STARD. Results: Most studies assessed the reliability and validity of the CDS: three studies assessed construct validity using factor analysis; six studies assessed the validity of the CDS with other measures of depression; and four studies assessed its diagnostic accuracy. However, some studies reported overlapping samples, which reduces confidence in their evaluation. Conclusion: This review finds the CDS to be a psychometrically sound measurement instrument for identifying mild, moderate and severe depression in cardiac populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)610-618
Number of pages9
JournalHeart Lung and Circulation
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Cardiac Depression Scale
  • Diagnostic accuracy
  • Reliability
  • Screening
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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