Punctal plugs (PPs) are miniature medical implants that were initially developed for the treatment of dry eyes. Since their introduction in 1975, many PPs made from different materials and designs have been developed. PPs, albeit generally successful, suffer from drawbacks such as epiphora and suppurative canaliculitis. To overcome these issues intelligent designs of PPs were proposed (e.g. SmartPLUG™ and Form Fit™). PPs are also gaining interest among pharmaceutical scientists for sustaining drug delivery to the eye. This review aims to provide an overview of PPs for dry eye treatment and drug delivery to treat a range of ocular diseases. It also discusses current challenges in using PPs for ocular diseases.
Yellepeddi, V. K., Sheshala, R., McMillan, H., Gujral, C., Jones, D., & Singh, T. R. R. (2015). Punctal plug: a medical device to treat dry eye syndrome and for sustained drug delivery to the eye. Drug Discovery Today, 20(7), 884-889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2015.01.013