Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, at both an inter- and intra-tumoural level. Appreciating heterogeneity through the application of biomarkers and molecular signatures adds complexity to tumour taxonomy but is key to personalising diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The extent to which heterogeneity exists, and its interpretation remains a challenge to pathologists. Using HER2 as an exemplar, we have developed a simple reproducible heterogeneity index. Cell-to-cell HER2 heterogeneity was extensive in a proportion of both reported 'amplified' and 'non-amplified' cases. The highest levels of heterogeneity objectively identified occurred in borderline categories and higher ratio non-amplified cases. A case with particularly striking heterogeneity was analysed further with an array of biomarkers in order to assign a molecular diagnosis. Broad biological complexity was evident. In essence, interpretation, depending on the area of tumour sampled, could have been one of three distinct phenotypes, each of which would infer different therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we recommend that heterogeneity is assessed and taken into account when determining treatment options.