Chemical, nonenzymatic modification of protein and lipids by reducing sugars, such as glucose, is thought to contribute to age-related deterioration in tissue protein and cellular membranes and to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This report describes the synthesis and quantification of N-(glucitol)ethanolamine (GE) and N-(carboxymethyl)serine (CMS), two products of nonenzymatic modification of aminophospholipids. GE is the product of reduction and hydrolysis of glycated phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), while CMS is formed through reaction of phosphatidylserine (PS) with products of oxidation of either carbohydrate (glycoxidation) or lipids (lipoxidation). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedures for quantification of the N,O-acetyl methyl ester derivatives of the modified head groups were developed. GE and CMS were quantified in samples of PE and PS, respectively, following incubation with glucose in vitro; CMS formation was dependent on the presence of oxygen during the incubation. Both GE and CMS were detected and quantified in lipid extracts of human red blood cell membranes. The content of GE, but not CMS, was increased in the lipids from diabetic compared to nondiabetic subjects. Measurement of these modified lipids should prove useful for assessing the role of carbonyl-amine reactions of aminophospholipids in aging and age-related diseases.
Bibliographical noteCopyright 1999 Academic Press.
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
- Erythrocyte Membrane
- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
- Glycosylation End Products, Advanced
- Schiff Bases