Advances in quantum technologies are giving rise to a revolution in the way fundamental physics questions are explored at the empirical level. At the same time, they are the seeds for future disruptive technological applications of quantum physics. Remarkably, a space-based environment may open many new avenues for exploring and employing quantum physics and technologies. Recently, space missions employing quantum technologies for fundamental or applied studies have been proposed and implemented with stunning results. The combination of quantum physics and its space application is the focus of this review: we cover both the fundamental scientific questions that can be tackled with quantum technologies in space and the possible implementation of these technologies for a variety of academic and commercial purposes.