Radiotherapy (RT) is a primary treatment modality for a number of cancers, offering potentially curative outcomes. Despite its success, tumour cells can become resistant to RT, leading to disease recurrence. Components of the tumour microenvironment (TME) likely play an integral role in managing RT success or failure including infiltrating immune cells, the tumour vasculature and stroma. Furthermore, genomic profiling of the TME could identify predictive biomarkers or gene signatures indicative of RT response. In this review, we will discuss proposed mechanisms of radioresistance within the TME, biomarkers that may predict RT outcomes, and future perspectives on radiation treatment in the era of personalised medicine.