Device authentication is essential for securing Inter-net of things. Radio frequency ﬁngerprint identiﬁcation (RFFI) is an emerging technique which exploits intrinsic and unique hardware impairments as the device identiﬁer. The existing RFFI literature focuses on experimental exploration but comprehensive modelling is missing. This paper systematically models impairments of transmitter and receiver in narrowband systems and carries out extensive experiments and simulations to evaluate their effects on RFFI. The modelled impairments include oscillator imperfections, imbalance of inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) branches of mixers and power ampliﬁer (PA) nonlinearity. We then propose a convolutional neural network-based RFFI protocol. We carry out experimental measurements over three months and demonstrate that oscillator imperfections are not suitable for RFFI due to their unpredictable time variation caused by temperature change. Our simulation results show that our protocol can classify 50 and 200 devices with uniformly and randomly distributed IQ imbalances and PA nonlinearities with high accuracy, namely 99% and 89%, respectively. We also show that the RFFI has some tolerance on different receiver imbalances during training and classiﬁcation. Speciﬁcally, the accuracy is shown to degrade less than 20% when the residual receiver’s gain and phase imbalances are small. Based on the experimental and simulation results, we made recommendations for designing a robust RFFI protocol, namely compensate carrier frequency offset and calibrate IQ imbalances of receivers.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Jun 2021|