Re-organisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos

AP Smertenko, PV Bozhkov, LH Filonova, S von Arnold, PJ Hussey*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

88 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cell and tissue patterning in plant embryo development is well documented. Moreover, it has recently been shown that successful embryogenesis is reliant on programmed cell death (PCD). The cytoskeleton governs cell morphogenesis. However, surprisingly little is known about the role of the cytoskeleton in plant embryogenesis and associated PCD. We have used the gymnosperm, Picea abies , somatic embryogenesis model system to address this question. Formation of the apical-basal embryonic pattern in P. abies proceeds through the establishment of three major cell types: the meristematic cells of the embryonal mass on one pole and the terminally differentiated suspensor cells on the other, separated by the embryonal tube cells. The organisation of microtubules and F-actin changes successively from the embryonal mass towards the distal end of the embryo suspensor. The microtubule arrays appear normal in the embryonal mass cells, but the microtubule network is partially disorganised in the embryonal tube cells and the microtubules disrupted in the suspensor cells. In the same embryos, the microtubule-associated protein, MAP-65, is bound only to organised microtubules. In contrast, in a developmentally arrested cell line, which is incapable of normal embryonic pattern formation, MAP-65 does not bind the cortical microtubules and we suggest that this is a criterion for proembryogenic masses (PEMs) to passage into early embryogeny. In embryos, the organisation of F-actin gradually changes from a fine network in the embryonal mass cells to thick cables in the suspensor cells in which the microtubule network is completely degraded. F-actin de-polymerisation drugs abolish normal embryonic pattern formation and associated PCD in the suspensor, strongly suggesting that the actin network is vital in this PCD pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)813-824
Number of pages12
JournalThe Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology
Volume33
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2003

Keywords

  • actin
  • PATHWAYS
  • DAP-KINASE
  • NORWAY SPRUCE
  • microtubule-associated proteins
  • programmed cell death
  • embryogenesis
  • embryo suspensor
  • MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN
  • TUBULIN
  • APOPTOSIS
  • cytoskeleton
  • GROWTH
  • SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS
  • PLANTS

Cite this

Smertenko, AP., Bozhkov, PV., Filonova, LH., von Arnold, S., & Hussey, PJ. (2003). Re-organisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos. The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 33(5), 813-824.
Smertenko, AP ; Bozhkov, PV ; Filonova, LH ; von Arnold, S ; Hussey, PJ. / Re-organisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos. In: The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology. 2003 ; Vol. 33, No. 5. pp. 813-824.
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abstract = "Cell and tissue patterning in plant embryo development is well documented. Moreover, it has recently been shown that successful embryogenesis is reliant on programmed cell death (PCD). The cytoskeleton governs cell morphogenesis. However, surprisingly little is known about the role of the cytoskeleton in plant embryogenesis and associated PCD. We have used the gymnosperm, Picea abies , somatic embryogenesis model system to address this question. Formation of the apical-basal embryonic pattern in P. abies proceeds through the establishment of three major cell types: the meristematic cells of the embryonal mass on one pole and the terminally differentiated suspensor cells on the other, separated by the embryonal tube cells. The organisation of microtubules and F-actin changes successively from the embryonal mass towards the distal end of the embryo suspensor. The microtubule arrays appear normal in the embryonal mass cells, but the microtubule network is partially disorganised in the embryonal tube cells and the microtubules disrupted in the suspensor cells. In the same embryos, the microtubule-associated protein, MAP-65, is bound only to organised microtubules. In contrast, in a developmentally arrested cell line, which is incapable of normal embryonic pattern formation, MAP-65 does not bind the cortical microtubules and we suggest that this is a criterion for proembryogenic masses (PEMs) to passage into early embryogeny. In embryos, the organisation of F-actin gradually changes from a fine network in the embryonal mass cells to thick cables in the suspensor cells in which the microtubule network is completely degraded. F-actin de-polymerisation drugs abolish normal embryonic pattern formation and associated PCD in the suspensor, strongly suggesting that the actin network is vital in this PCD pathway.",
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Smertenko, AP, Bozhkov, PV, Filonova, LH, von Arnold, S & Hussey, PJ 2003, 'Re-organisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos', The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 813-824.

Re-organisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos. / Smertenko, AP; Bozhkov, PV; Filonova, LH; von Arnold, S; Hussey, PJ.

In: The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, Vol. 33, No. 5, 03.2003, p. 813-824.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Re-organisation of the cytoskeleton during developmental programmed cell death in Picea abies embryos

AU - Smertenko, AP

AU - Bozhkov, PV

AU - Filonova, LH

AU - von Arnold, S

AU - Hussey, PJ

PY - 2003/3

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N2 - Cell and tissue patterning in plant embryo development is well documented. Moreover, it has recently been shown that successful embryogenesis is reliant on programmed cell death (PCD). The cytoskeleton governs cell morphogenesis. However, surprisingly little is known about the role of the cytoskeleton in plant embryogenesis and associated PCD. We have used the gymnosperm, Picea abies , somatic embryogenesis model system to address this question. Formation of the apical-basal embryonic pattern in P. abies proceeds through the establishment of three major cell types: the meristematic cells of the embryonal mass on one pole and the terminally differentiated suspensor cells on the other, separated by the embryonal tube cells. The organisation of microtubules and F-actin changes successively from the embryonal mass towards the distal end of the embryo suspensor. The microtubule arrays appear normal in the embryonal mass cells, but the microtubule network is partially disorganised in the embryonal tube cells and the microtubules disrupted in the suspensor cells. In the same embryos, the microtubule-associated protein, MAP-65, is bound only to organised microtubules. In contrast, in a developmentally arrested cell line, which is incapable of normal embryonic pattern formation, MAP-65 does not bind the cortical microtubules and we suggest that this is a criterion for proembryogenic masses (PEMs) to passage into early embryogeny. In embryos, the organisation of F-actin gradually changes from a fine network in the embryonal mass cells to thick cables in the suspensor cells in which the microtubule network is completely degraded. F-actin de-polymerisation drugs abolish normal embryonic pattern formation and associated PCD in the suspensor, strongly suggesting that the actin network is vital in this PCD pathway.

AB - Cell and tissue patterning in plant embryo development is well documented. Moreover, it has recently been shown that successful embryogenesis is reliant on programmed cell death (PCD). The cytoskeleton governs cell morphogenesis. However, surprisingly little is known about the role of the cytoskeleton in plant embryogenesis and associated PCD. We have used the gymnosperm, Picea abies , somatic embryogenesis model system to address this question. Formation of the apical-basal embryonic pattern in P. abies proceeds through the establishment of three major cell types: the meristematic cells of the embryonal mass on one pole and the terminally differentiated suspensor cells on the other, separated by the embryonal tube cells. The organisation of microtubules and F-actin changes successively from the embryonal mass towards the distal end of the embryo suspensor. The microtubule arrays appear normal in the embryonal mass cells, but the microtubule network is partially disorganised in the embryonal tube cells and the microtubules disrupted in the suspensor cells. In the same embryos, the microtubule-associated protein, MAP-65, is bound only to organised microtubules. In contrast, in a developmentally arrested cell line, which is incapable of normal embryonic pattern formation, MAP-65 does not bind the cortical microtubules and we suggest that this is a criterion for proembryogenic masses (PEMs) to passage into early embryogeny. In embryos, the organisation of F-actin gradually changes from a fine network in the embryonal mass cells to thick cables in the suspensor cells in which the microtubule network is completely degraded. F-actin de-polymerisation drugs abolish normal embryonic pattern formation and associated PCD in the suspensor, strongly suggesting that the actin network is vital in this PCD pathway.

KW - actin

KW - PATHWAYS

KW - DAP-KINASE

KW - NORWAY SPRUCE

KW - microtubule-associated proteins

KW - programmed cell death

KW - embryogenesis

KW - embryo suspensor

KW - MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN

KW - TUBULIN

KW - APOPTOSIS

KW - cytoskeleton

KW - GROWTH

KW - SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

KW - PLANTS

M3 - Article

VL - 33

SP - 813

EP - 824

JO - The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology

JF - The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology

SN - 0960-7412

IS - 5

ER -