Efficient myelin regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) requires the migration, proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), this regenerative process can fail, and therapies targeting myelin repair are currently completely lacking in the clinic. The immune system is emerging as a key regenerative player in many tissues, such as muscle and heart. We recently reported that regulatory T cells (Treg) are required for efficient CNS remyelination. Furthermore, Treg secrete CCN3, a matricellular protein from the CCN family, implicated in regeneration of other tissues. Treg-derived CCN3 promoted oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. In contrast, previous studies showed that CCN2 inhibited myelination. These studies highlight the need for further scrutiny of the roles that CCN proteins play in myelin development and regeneration. Collectively, these findings open up exciting avenues of research to uncover the regenerative potential of the adaptive immune system.