In this study, the surface properties of and work required to remove 12 commercially available and developmental catheters from a model biological medium (agar), a measure of catheter lubricity, were characterised and the relationships between these properties were examined using multiple regression and correlation analysis. The work required for removal of catheter sections (7 cm) from a model biological medium (1% w/w agar) were examined using tensile analysis. The water wettability of the catheters were characterised using dynamic contact angle analysis, whereas surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscopy. Significant differences in the ease of removal were observed between the various catheters, with the silicone-based materials generally exhibiting the greatest ease of removal. Similarly, the catheters exhibited a range of advancing and receding contact angles that were dependent on the chemical nature of each catheter. Finally, whilst the microrugosities of the various catheters differed, no specific relationship to the chemical nature of the biomaterial was apparent. Using multiple regression analysis, the relationship between ease of removal, receding contact angle and surface roughness was defined as: Work done (N mm) 17.18 + 0.055 Rugosity (nm)-0.52 Receding contact angle (degrees) (r = 0.49). Interestingly, whilst the relationship between ease of removal and surface roughness was significant (r = 0.48, p = 0.0005), in which catheter lubricity increased as the surface roughness decreased, this was not the case with the relationship between ease of removal and receding contact angle (r = -0.18, p > 0.05). This study has therefore uniquely defined the contributions of each of these surface properties to catheter lubricity. Accordingly, in the design of urethral catheters. it is recommended that due consideration should be directed towards biomaterial surface roughness to ensure maximal ease of catheter removal. Furthermore, using the method described in this study, differences in the lubricity of the various catheters were observed that may be apparent in their clinical use. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2004|