Relationships between antioxidant activity, color, and flavor compounds of crystal malt extracts

H.M. Woffenden, Jennifer Ames, S. Chandra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Aqueous extracts were prepared from five barley crystal malts (color range 15-440 degrees EBC, European Brewing Convention units). Antioxidant activity was determined by using the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.+)) radical cation scavenging method. Antioxidant activity increased with increasing color value although the rate of increase decreased with increasing color value. Color was measured in CIELAB space. Extracts of the 15, 23, and 72 degrees EBC malts followed the same dilution pathway as did the 148 degrees EBC sample at higher dilution levels, indicating that they could each be used to give the same color by appropriate dilution. The 440 degrees EBC sample followed a different dilution pathway, indicating that different compounds were responsible for color in this extract. Fifteen selected volatile compounds were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Levels of methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal were highest for the 72 degrees EBC sample. When odor threshold values of the selected compounds were taken into account, 3-methylbutanal was the most important contributor to flavor., Relationships between levels of the lipid oxidation products, hexanal and (E)-2-nonenal, and antioxidant activity were complex, and increasing antioxidant activity for samples in the range of 15-148 degrees EBC did-not result in reduced levels of these lipid-derived compounds. When different colored malt extracts were diluted to give the same a* and b* values, calculated antioxidant activity and amounts of 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, and (E)-2-nonenal decreased with increasing degrees EBC value.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5524-5530
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)


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