Requirements for progress in understanding solar flare energy transport: the gradual phase

Graham S. Kerr*, Meriem Alaoui, Joel C. Allred, William Ashfield, Thomas Y. Chen, Brian R. Dennis, A. Gordon Emslie, Lyndsay Fletcher, Ryan J. French, Silvina E. Guidoni, Fan Guo, Laura A. Hayes, Hugh S. Hudson, Andrew R. Inglis, Judith T. Karpen, Adam F. Kowalski, James A. Klimchuk, Ryan O. Milligan, Shaun McLaughlin, Aaron MonsonVanessa Polito, Jiong Qiu, Daniel F. Ryan, Albert Y. Shih

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Downloads (Pure)


Solar flares are a fundamental component of solar eruptive events (SEEs), along with solar energetic particles (SEPs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Flare emission is the first component of a SEEto impact the Earth’s atmosphere which can set the stage for the later arrival of the associated SEPs,CME, and space weather event. Magnetic reconnection drives SEEs by restructuring the solar coronal magnetic field, liberating a tremendous amount of energy which is partitioned into various physical manifestations: particle acceleration, mass and magnetic-field eruption, atmospheric heating, and the subsequent emission of radiation as solar flares. In this white paper we discuss the observational and theoretical advances required in order to make substantial progress in understanding the physical processes acting during the gradual phase of a flare. That is, the decay period, following the initial rapid release of energy during the impulsive phase (see our other white paper). In particular we want to address the unknown processes that sustain the long decay phase of flares, and identify the unknown mechanism and magnitude of continued energy injection during the gradual phase.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalBulletin of the American Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2023


  • General Medicine
  • General Materials Science
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • General Environmental Science
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • General Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Requirements for progress in understanding solar flare energy transport: the gradual phase'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this