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We develop a resource theory for continuous-variable systems grounded on operations routinely available within current quantum technologies. In particular, the set of free operations is convex and includes quadratic transformations and conditional coarse-grained measurements. The present theory lends itself to quantify both quantum non-Gaussianity and Wigner negativity as resources, depending on the choice of the free-state set—i.e., the convex hull of Gaussian states or the states with positive Wigner function, respectively. After showing that the theory admits no maximally resourceful state, we define a computable resource monotone—the Wigner logarithmic negativity. We use the latter to assess the resource content of experimentally relevant states—e.g., photon-added, photon-subtracted, cubic-phase, and cat states—and to find optimal working points of some resource concentration protocols. We envisage applications of this framework to subuniversal and universal quantum information processing over continuous variables.