Purpose. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease and a major cause of visual impairment. In this study, we aimed to observe whether RVO cases have different antibody profiles as a new potential risk factor and whether a conversion of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) to neovascular glaucoma (NVG), one of the major complications, is occurring within a 5-year timeframe. Methods. We performed a nested case-control study (1 : 4) within the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS), a population-based, prospective cohort study in the Rhine-Main Region of Germany including 15,010 participants. RVO subjects (n = 59) were identified by grading of fundus photographs. Optic nerves of RVO subjects and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 229) at baseline and their follow-up examination after 5 years were analyzed for glaucomatous alterations. Of all RVO subjects and controls, serum autoantibody profiles were measured using in-house manufactured antigen-antibody microarrays. Results. Of the 59 RVO patients, 3 patients (5%) showed glaucomatous optic disc alterations at baseline, whereas no new glaucoma case was detected at 5-year follow-up. Four of the autoantibodies measured (against dermcidin, neurotrophin-3, superoxide dismutase 1, and signal recognition particle 14 kDa protein) were significantly increased in the serum of RVO patients . Multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis showed that 3 of these 4 antibodies were independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions. We found several autoantibodies associated with RVO, targeting proteins and structures possibly involved in RVO pathogenesis.