Review of frequency stability services for grid balancing with wind generation

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Frequency stability in power systems is achieved by active power control, which aims to balance grid generation with load demand. Historically, grid balancing services have been provided by synchronous thermal generating units. As wind penetration levels increase on the power system, it is essential that wind turbine generators (WTGs) provide robust, reliable frequency stability services to grid operators. Like other forms of renewable generation such as solar photovoltaic generation, modern variable speed WTGs are connected to the power system using power electronic converters. This non-synchronous connection decouples the natural inertia of the WTG from the grid frequency. As system non-synchronous penetration levels increase, non-synchronous generation will be required to participate in frequency stability services such as automatic generation control. This study presents a review of WTG frequency response systems that allow WTGs to participate in frequency stability
services by emulating the natural inertia and droop characteristics of conventional synchronous thermal generators. Power system simulations performed in MATLAB/Simulink show that the addition of emulated inertia and droop controllers into WTG's power/speed control systems can reduce the rate of change of frequency and increase frequency nadir when the power system is subject to a load/generation imbalance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-5
JournalIET The Journal of Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jul 2018


  • Turbogenerators
  • power generation control
  • wind power plants
  • frequency control
  • power grids
  • power control
  • power system stability
  • frequency response
  • frequency stability
  • wind turbines
  • power generation faults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Energy(all)


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