Risk Factors and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Mediterranean-Basin Population: The PAMDI (Prevalence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Italy) Study--Report 2

Stefano Piermarocchi, Daniele Tognetto, Rita Piermarocchi, Morena Masetto, Gianluca Monterosso, Tatiana Segato, Fabiano Cavarzeran, Aida Turrini, Tunde Peto, PAMDI Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

AIM: To investigate the association of diet and other modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in rural and urban communities of a Mediterranean population in the northeast of Italy.

METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted among subjects aged over 60 years. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the consumption of different food categories, i.e., protective (P), risky (R), lutein-rich (L) and neutral (N). Smoking habit and alcohol intake were also examined. Macular pigment was measured by Raman spectroscopy.

RESULTS: P food intake reduced the risk of large drusen (ARM2; OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.96) within the rural community. In this sub-group, R foods resulted in a slight association with large drusen, though the R/P food ratio was highly correlated with ARM2 (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31). Raman measures showed an age-dependent decrease but did not correlate with lutein intake. Smoking habit showed a positive association with ARM2 among women (OR 2.40; 95% CI 1.54-3.75), whereas alcohol consumption resulted in protective odds (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.60-0.86).

CONCLUSION: FFQ analysis confirmed the role of P and R foods and the benefit of a Mediterranean diet in ARMD. Moderate alcohol consumption showed a beneficial effect, whereas the deleterious role of a smoking habit was more evident in females.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-8
JournalOphthalmic Research
Volume55
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Feb 2016

Keywords

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Lutein
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Retinal Drusen
  • Risk Factors
  • Rural Population
  • Smoking
  • Urban Population
  • Journal Article

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