Rotary Cement Kiln Simulator (RoCKS): Integrated modeling of pre-heater, calciner, kiln and clinker cooler

Kaustubh S. Mujumdar, K. V. Ganesh, Sarita B. Kulkarni, Vivek V. Ranade*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents an integrated reaction engineering based mathematical model for clinker formation in cement industry. Separate models for pre-heater, calciner, rotary kiln and cooler were initially developed and coupled together to build an integrated simulator. Appropriate models for simulating gas-solid contact and heat transfer in pre-heaters were developed. Calciner was modeled by considering simultaneous combustion of coal particles and calcination of raw meal. Complex heat transfer and reactions (solid-solid, gas-solid and homogeneous reactions in gas phase) in rotary kiln were modeled using three sub-models coupled to each other. Solid-solid reactions in the bed region of the kiln were modeled using pseudo-homogeneous approximation. Melting of solids in the bed and formation of coating within the kiln were accounted. Clinker cooler was simulated by developing a two-dimensional model to capture cross-flow heat transfer between air and hot clinkers. The individual models were coupled with each other via mass and energy communication through common boundaries. The coupled model equations were solved iteratively. The model predictions agree well with the observations and experience from cement industry. The model was used to gain better understanding of influence of operating conditions on energy consumption in cement plant. Several ways for reducing energy consumption were computationally investigated. The integrated model, the developed software RoCKS (for Rotary Cement Kiln Simulator) and results presented here will be useful for enhancing our understanding and for enhancing the performance of clinker manufacturing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2590-2607
Number of pages18
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - May 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Cement
  • Energy consumption
  • Reaction engineering model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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