Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical parasitic disease caused by the trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects approximately 207 million people worldwide. Among the five main species infecting humans, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum are responsible for the majority of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis. Human settlements near fresh water sites that lack proper sanitary systems often contribute to the transmission of disease. This risk particularly impacts on travellers or immigrants who come into contact with larvae-contaminated water. This review discusses the central features of schistosomiasis; including clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatments, and the preventive measures available for the control of this disease. The description of the Malaysian schistosome species Schistosoma malayensis and the current status of schistosomiasis in Malaysia including the compilation of cases diagnosed from 1904 to 2015 are also discussed in this paper.