Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230 000 participants in 15 countries

Helena Marti-Soler, Cédric Gubelmann, Stefanie Aeschbacher, Luis Alves, Martin Bobak, Vanina Bongard, Els Clays, Giovanni de Gaetano, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Roberto Elosua, Jean Ferrieres, Idris Guessous, Jannicke Igland, Torben Jørgensen, Yuri Nikitin, Mark G O'Doherty, Luigi Palmieri, Rafel Ramos, Judith Simons, Gerhard SuloDiego Vanuzzo, Joan Vila, Henrique Barros, Anders Borglykke, David Conen, Dirk De Bacquer, Chiara Donfrancesco, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Simona Giampaoli, Graham G Giles, Licia Iacoviello, Frank Kee, Ruzena Kubinova, Sofia Malyutina, Jaume Marrugat, Eva Prescott, Jean Bernard Ruidavets, Robert Scragg, Leon A Simons, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Grethe S Tell, Peter Vollenweider, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Mark O'Doherty

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference; systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure; total, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides and glucose levels. Within each study, all data were adjusted for age, gender and current smoking. For blood pressure, lipids and glucose levels, further adjustments on BMI and drug treatment were performed.

Results: In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, CVRFs levels tended to be higher in winter and lower in summer months. These patterns were observed for most studies. In the Northern Hemisphere, the estimated seasonal variations were 0.26 kg/m2 for BMI, 0.6 cm for waist circumference, 2.9 mm Hg for SBP, 1.4 mm Hg for DBP, 0.02 mmol/L for triglycerides, 0.10 mmol/L for total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/L for HDL cholesterol, 0.11 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 0.07 mmol/L for glycaemia. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to studies collecting fasting blood samples. Similar seasonal variations were found for most CVRFs in the Southern Hemisphere, with the exception of waist circumference, HDL, and LDL cholesterol.

Conclusions: CVRFs show a seasonal pattern characterised by higher levels in winter, and lower levels in summer. This pattern could contribute to the seasonality of CV mortality.
Original languageEnglish
JournalHeart
Volume100
Issue number19
Early online date30 May 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

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