Secondary Foreign Policy Activities in Third Sector Cross-border Cooperation as Conflict Transformation in the European Union: The Cases of the Basque and Irish Borderscapes

Cathal McCall, Xabier Itçaina

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Abstract

This paper provides a comparative examination of Third (non-public, non-profit) sector cross-border cooperation contributing to conflict transformation in the Basque (France/Spain) and Irish (UK/Ireland) borderscapes. The comparison is based on the premise that the European Union (EU) played a different role in both cases. In the Irish case, the EU contributed to the institutionalization of a peace process that included cross-border cooperation between Third sector organizations among its policy instruments contributing to conflict transformation. In the Basque case, the unilateral renunciation of violence by ETA (Euskadi eta Askatasuna) in 2010 did not generate the consistent involvement of the EU in an institutional peace process. However, some Third sector organizations became secondary foreign policy actors using EU instruments for cross-border economic, social, and cultural cooperation between France and Spain in order to reinforce their cross-border networks, which indirectly impacted on conflict transformation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-281
Number of pages21
JournalRegional and Federal Studies
Volume27
Issue number3
Early online date03 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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cross-border cooperation
Basque
foreign policy
European Union
peace process
Spain
France
renunciation
non-profit sector
institutionalization
Ireland
violence
examination
economics
co-operation
border
conflict

Keywords

  • borderscapes, cross-border cooperation, identity politics, Third Sector, Ireland, Basque Country

Cite this

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AB - This paper provides a comparative examination of Third (non-public, non-profit) sector cross-border cooperation contributing to conflict transformation in the Basque (France/Spain) and Irish (UK/Ireland) borderscapes. The comparison is based on the premise that the European Union (EU) played a different role in both cases. In the Irish case, the EU contributed to the institutionalization of a peace process that included cross-border cooperation between Third sector organizations among its policy instruments contributing to conflict transformation. In the Basque case, the unilateral renunciation of violence by ETA (Euskadi eta Askatasuna) in 2010 did not generate the consistent involvement of the EU in an institutional peace process. However, some Third sector organizations became secondary foreign policy actors using EU instruments for cross-border economic, social, and cultural cooperation between France and Spain in order to reinforce their cross-border networks, which indirectly impacted on conflict transformation.

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