Self-refraction, ready-made glasses and quality of life among rural myopic Chinese children: a non-inferiority randomized trial.

Zhongqiang Zhou, Tingting Chen, Ling Jin, Dongxing Zhen, Mingguang He, Josh Silver, Leon Ellwein, Bruce Moore, Nathan Congdon

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PURPOSE: To study, for the first time, the effect of wearing ready-made glasses and glasses with power determined by self-refraction on children's quality of life.METHODS: This is a randomized, double-masked non-inferiority trial. Children in grades 7 and 8 (age 12-15 years) in nine Chinese secondary schools, with presenting visual acuity (VA) ≤6/12 improved with refraction to ≥6/7.5 bilaterally, refractive error ≤-1.0 D and <2.0 D of anisometropia and astigmatism bilaterally, were randomized to receive ready-made spectacles (RM) or identical-appearing spectacles with power determined by: subjective cycloplegic retinoscopy by a university optometrist (U), a rural refractionist (R) or non-cycloplegic self-refraction (SR). Main study outcome was global score on the National Eye Institute Refractive Error Quality of Life-42 (NEI-RQL-42) after 2 months of wearing study glasses, comparing other groups with the U group, adjusting for baseline score.RESULTS: Only one child (0.18%) was excluded for anisometropia or astigmatism. A total of 426 eligible subjects (mean age 14.2 years, 84.5% without glasses at baseline) were allocated to U [103 (24.2%)], RM [113 (26.5%)], R [108 (25.4%)] and SR [102 (23.9%)] groups, respectively. Baseline and endline score data were available for 398 (93.4%) of subjects. In multiple regression models adjusting for baseline score, older age (p = 0.003) and baseline spectacle wear (p = 0.016), but not study group assignment, were significantly associated with lower final score. CONCLUSION: Quality of life wearing ready-mades or glasses based on self-refraction did not differ from that with cycloplegic refraction by an experienced optometrist in this non-inferiority trial.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Early online date20 Jun 2016
Publication statusEarly online date - 20 Jun 2016


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