Sequential induction of beta cell rest and stimulation using stable GIP inhibitor and GLP-1 mimetic peptides improves metabolic control in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice

Varun Pathak, Srividya Vasu, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] has been characterised as a fatty-acid-derived gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) inhibitor that can induce pancreatic beta cell rest by diminishing the incretin effect. We investigated its therapeutic efficacy with and without the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) beta cell cytotropic agent liraglutide.

METHODS: The therapeutic efficacy of GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] alone, and in combination with liraglutide, was determined in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice using a sequential 12 h administration schedule.

RESULTS: GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] was devoid of cAMP-generating or insulin-secretory activity, and inhibited GIP-induced cAMP production and insulin secretion. GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] also inhibited GIP-induced glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing actions in mice. Dose- and time-dependent studies in mice revealed that 2.5 nmol/kg GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal], and 0.25 nmol/kg liraglutide, imparted distinct biological effects for 8-12 h post administration. When GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (2.5 nmol/kg) and liraglutide (0.25 nmol/kg) were administered sequentially at 12 h intervals (at 08:00 and 20:00 hours) to db/db mice for 28 days, mice treated with GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (08:00 hours) and liraglutide (20:00 hours) displayed pronounced reductions in circulating glucose and insulin. Both oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated plasma insulin concentrations were improved together with enhanced insulin sensitivity. The expression of genes involved in adipocyte lipid deposition was generally decreased. The other treatment modalities, including GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (08:00 and 20:00 hours), liraglutide (08:00 and 20:00 hours) and liraglutide (08:00 hours) combined with GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (20:00 hours), also imparted beneficial effects but these were not as prominent as those of GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (08:00 hours) and liraglutide (20:00 hours).

CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that periods of beta cell rest combined with intervals of beta cell stimulation benefit diabetes control and should be further evaluated as a potential treatment option for type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2144-2153
Issue number9
Early online date06 Jun 2015
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2015


  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose
  • Cricetinae
  • Cyclic AMP
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Fatty Acids
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Incretins
  • Infusions, Parenteral
  • Insulin
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells
  • Liraglutide
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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