AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] has been characterised as a fatty-acid-derived gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) inhibitor that can induce pancreatic beta cell rest by diminishing the incretin effect. We investigated its therapeutic efficacy with and without the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) beta cell cytotropic agent liraglutide.
METHODS: The therapeutic efficacy of GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] alone, and in combination with liraglutide, was determined in C57BL/KsJ db/db mice using a sequential 12 h administration schedule.
RESULTS: GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] was devoid of cAMP-generating or insulin-secretory activity, and inhibited GIP-induced cAMP production and insulin secretion. GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] also inhibited GIP-induced glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing actions in mice. Dose- and time-dependent studies in mice revealed that 2.5 nmol/kg GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal], and 0.25 nmol/kg liraglutide, imparted distinct biological effects for 8-12 h post administration. When GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (2.5 nmol/kg) and liraglutide (0.25 nmol/kg) were administered sequentially at 12 h intervals (at 08:00 and 20:00 hours) to db/db mice for 28 days, mice treated with GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (08:00 hours) and liraglutide (20:00 hours) displayed pronounced reductions in circulating glucose and insulin. Both oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated plasma insulin concentrations were improved together with enhanced insulin sensitivity. The expression of genes involved in adipocyte lipid deposition was generally decreased. The other treatment modalities, including GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (08:00 and 20:00 hours), liraglutide (08:00 and 20:00 hours) and liraglutide (08:00 hours) combined with GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (20:00 hours), also imparted beneficial effects but these were not as prominent as those of GIP(6-30)Cex-K(40)[Pal] (08:00 hours) and liraglutide (20:00 hours).
CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that periods of beta cell rest combined with intervals of beta cell stimulation benefit diabetes control and should be further evaluated as a potential treatment option for type 2 diabetes.
- Administration, Oral
- Blood Glucose
- Cyclic AMP
- Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental
- Drug Administration Schedule
- Fatty Acids
- Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
- Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
- Infusions, Parenteral
- Insulin-Secreting Cells
- Mice, Inbred C57BL
- Protein Structure, Tertiary
- Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't