CONTEXT: In observational studies low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Increasing serum 25-OHD may have beneficial effects on insulin resistance or beta-cell function. Cross-sectional studies utilising sub-optimal methods for assessment of insulin sensitivity and serum 25-OHD concentration provide conflicting results.
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between serum 25-OHD concentration and insulin resistance in healthy overweight individuals at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, using optimal assessment techniques.
METHODS: 92 subjects (mean age 56.0, SD 6.0 years), who were healthy but overweight (mean BMI 30.9, SD 2.3 kg/m(2) ) underwent assessments of insulin sensitivity (two-step euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, HOMA2-IR), beta-cell function (HOMA2%B), serum 25-OHD concentration and body composition (DEXA).
RESULTS: Mean total 25-OHD concentration was 32.2, range 21.8 - 46.6 nmol/L. No association was demonstrated between serum 25-OHD concentration and insulin resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study using optimal assessment techniques to measure 25-OHD concentration, insulin sensitivity and body composition, there was no association between serum 25-OHD concentration and insulin resistance in healthy, overweight individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study suggests the documented inverse association between serum 25-OHD concentration and risk of type 2 DM is not mediated by a relationship between serum 25-OHD concentration and insulin resistance.