The potential for serum amyloid P-component (SAP) to prevent cardiac remodeling and identify worsening diastolic dysfunction (DD) was investigated. The anti-fibrotic potential of SAP was tested in an animal model of hypertensive heart disease (spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with SAP [SHR - SAP] × 12 weeks). Biomarker analysis included a prospective study of 60 patients with asymptomatic progressive DD. Compared with vehicle-treated Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY-V), the vehicle-treated SHRs (SHR-V) exhibited significant increases in left ventricular mass, perivascular collagen, cardiomyocyte size, and macrophage infiltration. SAP administration was associated with significantly lower left ventricular mass (p < 0.01), perivascular collagen (p < 0.01), and cardiomyocyte size (p < 0.01). Macrophage infiltration was significantly attenuated in the SHR-SAP group. Biomarker analysis showed significant decreases in SAP concentration over time in patients with progressive DD (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that SAP prevents cardiac remodeling by inhibiting recruitment of pro-fibrotic macrophages and that depleted SAP levels identify patients with advancing DD suggesting a role for SAP therapy.