Progressive renal decline is associated with increasing oxidative stress. However, the majority of studies have investigated endogenous antioxidants in predominantly advanced stages of kidney disease. Many traditional risk factors associated with renal dysfunction have been linked with cognitive decline as the kidneys and brain share comparable anatomic and haemodynamic characteristics that leave them susceptible to common pathogenic mechanisms. The objective of this study was to examine serum dietary antioxidants and their association with renal function characterised by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cross-sectional analysis of 570 participants. High performance liquid chromatography quantified serum levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and six carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin) in participants. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate associations while adjusting for potential confounders. A sensitivity analysis was performed in cognitively-intact participants only. Serum levels of the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein were positively associated with eGFR in analyses adjusted for age (years), gender, smoking, APOE4 status and Alzheimer's disease. Retinol was inversely associated with eGFR, although was no longer significant in the smaller sensitivity analysis. Our findings identify significant associations between the xanthophyll carotenoids and eGFR. Further investigations are required to confirm these findings.