The quality of single crystal diamond obtained by microwave CVD processes has been drastically improved in the last 5 years thanks to surface pretreatment of the substrates [A. Tallaire, J. Achard, F. Silva, R.S. Sussmann, A. Gicquel, E. Rzepka, Physica Status Solidi (A) 201, 2419-2424 (2004); G. Bogdan, M. Nesladek, J. D'Haen, J. Maes, V.V. Moshchalkov, K. Haenen, M. D'Olieslaeger, Physica Status Solidi (A) 202, 2066-2072 (2005); M. Yamamoto, T. Teraji, T. Ito, Journal of Crystal Growth 285, 130-136 (2005)]. Additionally, recent results have unambiguously shown the occurrence of (110) faces on crystal edges and (113) faces on crystal corners [F. Silva, J. Achard, X. Bonnin, A. Michau, A. Tallaire, O. Brinza, A. Gicquel, Physica Status Solidi (A) 203, 3049-3055 (2006)]. We have developed a 3D geometrical growth model to account for the final crystal morphology. The basic parameters of this growth model are the relative displacement speeds of (111), (110) and (113) faces normalized to that of the (100) faces, respectively alpha, beta, and gamma. This model predicts both the final equilibrium shape of the crystal (i.e. after infinite growth time) and the crystal morphology as a function of alpha, beta, gamma, and deposition time.
An optimized operating point, deduced from the model, has been validated experimentally by measuring the growth rate in (100), (111), (110), and (113) orientations. Furthermore, the evolution of alpha, beta, gamma as a function of methane concentration in the gas discharge has been established. From these results, crystal growth strategies can be proposed in order, for example, to enlarge the deposition area. In particular, we will show, using the growth model, that the only possibility to significantly increase the deposition area is, for our growth conditions, to use a (113) oriented substrate. A comparison between the grown crystal and the model results will be discussed and characterizations of the grown film (Photoluminescence spectroscopy, EPR, SEM) will be presented. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.