Biocompatible antibody–nanoparticle conjugates have attracted interest as anticancer agents due to their potential to selectively target therapeutic agents at disease sites. However, new formulation and conjugation approaches are urgently needed to improve their uniformity for clinical applications. Here, a pH-responsive benzaldehyde-functionalized poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-st-para-formyl phenyl methacrylate]-b-poly[2-(diisopropyl)aminoethyl methacrylate] [P(OEGMA-st-pFPMA)-b-PDPA] block copolymer, prepared by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, produced PEGylated nanoparticles (pH ∼ 7.4) by a single emulsion-solvent evaporation formulation approach. Efficient site-specific attachment of an aminooxy-functionalized anti-EGFR single-domain antibody (sdAb) on these benzaldehyde-decorated nanoparticles is achieved by oxime bond formation. These nanoconjugates can specifically bind EGFR (modified ELISA) and have enhanced uptake over nonfunctionalized controls in EGFR-positive HeLa cells. Encapsulation of rhodamine 6G dye and its dispersion upon cellular uptake, consistent with nanoparticle stability loss at pH < 5.7, prove their ability to facilitate triggered release in endosomal compartments and highlight their potential for use as next-generation antibody–drug nanoconjugates for therapeutic drug delivery.