Size-fitting of Intravaginal Rings for Macaques and in vitro Release Kinetics of Zinc Finger Inhibitors

Karl Malcolm, James M. Smith, Ettore Appella, Marco Schito, Ryo Hayashi, Nattawan Lanier, Ronald Otten, Sal Butera, Christopher McConville, David Woolfson

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Abstract

Background: Small molecule inhibitors of the zinc finger domain (ZFI) in the nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) of HIV-1 are potent inhibitors of HIV and SIV
replication and may have utility as topical products to prevent infection. Furthermore, intravaginal rings (IVRs) were developed as coitally-independent,
sustained release devices which could be used for administration of HIV microbicides. The aims of these studies were to demonstrate that IVRs sized for
macaques are practical and compatible with the current generation of thioester-based NCp7 inhibitors.

Methods: Non-medicated silicone elastomer vaginal rings of various sizes thought to be applicable for macaques were prepared and tested for vaginal fit in Pigtailed and Chinese Rhesus macaques. Macaques were monitored for 8 weeks for mucosal disruption by colposcopy and proinflammatory cytokine markers in cervical vaginal lavages (CVL) using Luminex bead-based technology. Three different ZFIs (compounds 52, 89 and 122, each derived from an N-substituted S-acyl-2-mercaptobenzamide thioester scaffold) were loaded at 50 mg into an optimal matrix-type ring design. In vitro continuous release studies were then conducted over 28 days and analyzed by HPLC. Rate of release was determined by linear regression analysis.

Results: Qualitative evaluation at the time of ring insertion suggested that the 25 mm ring provided optimal fit in both macaque species. All rings remained in
place during the study period (2 to 4 weeks), and the animals did not attempt to remove the rings. No tissue irritation was observed, and no signs of physical
discomfort were noted. Also, no significant induction of cervicovaginal proinflammatory markers was observed during the 8-week period during and following ring insertion. One Pigtailed macaque showed elevated IL-8 levels in the CVL during the period when the ring was in place; however, these levels were comparable to those observed in two control macaques. In vitro release of the ZFIs peaked at day 1 and then continually declined to near steady-state rates between 20-30 mcg/day. The percent release after 14 days was 2.9, 2.0 and 0.9 for ZFI 89, 52 and 122, respectively.

Conclusions: IVRs of 25mm diameter, determined to be the optimal size for macaques, were well tolerated and did not induce inflammation. Release of all ZFI compounds followed t 0.5 kinetics. These findings suggest that efficacy testing in primate models is warranted to fully evaluate the potential to prevent
transmission.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Event15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections - Boston, United States
Duration: 03 Feb 200806 Feb 2008

Conference

Conference15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections
CountryUnited States
CityBoston
Period03/02/200806/02/2008

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  • Cite this

    Malcolm, K., Smith, J. M., Appella, E., Schito, M., Hayashi, R., Lanier, N., Otten, R., Butera, S., McConville, C., & Woolfson, D. (2008). Size-fitting of Intravaginal Rings for Macaques and in vitro Release Kinetics of Zinc Finger Inhibitors. Poster session presented at 15th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston, United States.