Small strain behavior and crushability of Ballyconnelly carbonate sand under monotonic and cyclic loading

S. Nanda, Vinayagamoothy Sivakumar, Shane Donohue, Simon Graham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
370 Downloads (Pure)


In various parts of the globe, carbonate sands are found at shallow sea water depth. These types of sands are very susceptible to large scale particle breakage. Offshore structures like wind turbines and sea defences are constructed on these types of soils. From a design perspective, it is essential to assess the extent of particle breakage and the subsequent change in soil properties that occur under working load conditions. This paper presents the data obtained from a number of drained monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests on crushable carbonate sand (“Ballyconnelly sand”) in conjunction with small strain shear stiffness (Gmax) measurements using the bender element technique. The soils were allowed to shear under three different loading patterns in order to understand the factors influencing the breakage of particles.
The degree of crushing was quantified and analysed based on the total energy input. It was observed that, apart from applied stress, the total strain accumulation governs the amount of particle breakage. It was observed that Gmax increased significantly under high stress ratio. Gmax also increased noticeably during resting periods without any change in loading conditions as a result of creep, and subsequently during cyclic loading although at a reduced rate.
Original languageEnglish
JournalCanadian Geotechnical Journal
Early online date08 Nov 2017
Publication statusEarly online date - 08 Nov 2017


Dive into the research topics of 'Small strain behavior and crushability of Ballyconnelly carbonate sand under monotonic and cyclic loading'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this