SN 2009ip at late times - an interacting transient at+2 years

Morgan Fraser, Rubina Kotak, Andrea Pastorello, Anders Jerkstrand, Stephen J. Smartt, Ting-Wan Chen, Michael Childress, Gerard Gilmore, Cosimo Inserra, Erkki Kankare, Steve Margheim, Seppo Mattila, Stefano Valenti, Christopher Ashall, Stefano Benetti, Maria Theresa Botticella, Franz Erik Bauer, Heather Campbell, Nancy Elias-Rosa, Mathilde FleuryAvishay Gal-Yam, Stephan Hachinger, D. Andrew Howell, Laurent Le Guillou, Pierre-Francois Léget, Antonia Morales-Garoffolo, Joe Polshaw, Susanna Spiro, Mark Sullivan, Stefan Taubenberger, Massimo Turatto, Emma S. Walker, David R. Young, Bonnie Zhang

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Abstract

We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterize the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely Co-56-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow (less than or similar to 2000 km s(-1)) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe II] lambda 7155 and [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October, respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km s(-1). The lines are not blueshifted, and we see no significant near-or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 d after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3886-3905
Number of pages20
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume453
Issue number4
Early online date14 Sep 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2015

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