SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

N. E. Sanders, A. M. Soderberg, S. Valenti, R. J. Foley, R. Chornock, L. Chomiuk, E. Berger, S. Smartt, K. Hurley, S. D. Barthelmy, E. M. Levesque, G. Narayan, M. T. Botticella, M. S. Briggs, V. Connaughton, Y. Terada, N. Gehrels, S. Golenetskii, E. Mazets, T. ClineA. von Kienlin, W. Boynton, K. C. Chambers, T. Grav, J. N. Heasley, K. W. Hodapp, R. Jedicke, N. Kaiser, R. P. Kirshner, R.-P. Kudritzki, G. A. Luppino, R. H. Lupton, E. A. Magnier, D. G. Monet, J. S. Morgan, P. M. Onaka, P. A. Price, C. W. Stubbs, J. L. Tonry, R. J. Wainscoat, M. F. Waterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3π survey just ~4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR ≈ -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si ≈ 19 × 103 km s-1 at ~40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines ~2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, M Ni = 0.9 M ⊙. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M ej ≈ 4.7 M ⊙, and total kinetic energy, EK ≈ 11 × 1051 erg. The ratio of M Ni to M ej is ~2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and ~0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E γ ~ 1048 erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters also play a key role.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)184
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sep 2012


  • gamma-ray burst: general
  • supernovae: general
  • supernovae: individual: 2010ay


Dive into the research topics of 'SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this