SN 2016ije: An SN 2002es-like type la supernova exploded in a metal-poor and low-surface brightness galaxy

Zhitong Li*, Tianmeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Wang, Jujia Zhang, Lluís Galbany, Alexei V. Filippenko, Thomas G. Brink, Chris Ashall, WeiKang Zheng, Thomas de Jaeger, Fabio Ragosta, Maxime Deckers, Mariusz Gromadzki, D. R. Young, Gaobo Xi, Juncheng Chen, Xulin Zhao, Hanna Sai, Shengyu Yan, Danfeng XiangZhihao Chen, Wenxiong Li, Bo Wang, Hu Zou, Jipeng Sui, Jiali Wang, Jun Ma, Jundan Nie, Suijian Xue, Xu Zhou, Zhimin Zhou

*Corresponding author for this work

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We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of the peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2016ije that was discovered through the Tsinghua-NAOC Transient Survey. This peculiar object exploded in the outskirts of a metal-poor, low-surface brightness galaxy (i.e., M g = −14.5 mag). Our photometric analysis reveals that SN 2016ije is subluminous ( MB, max = −17.65 ± 0.06 mag) but exhibits relatively broad light curves (Δm 15(B) = 1.35 ± 0.14 mag), similar to the behavior of SN 2002es. Our analysis of the bolometric light curve indicates that only 0.14 ± 0.04 M ⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion of SN 2016ije, which suggests a less energetic thermonuclear explosion when compared to normal SNe Ia, and this left a considerable amount of unburned materials in the ejecta. Spectroscopically, SN 2016ije resembles other SN 2002es-like SNe Ia, except that the ejecta velocity inferred from its carbon absorption line (∼4500 km s−1) is much lower than that from silicon lines (∼8300 km s−1) at around the maximum light. Additionally, most of the absorption lines are broader than other 02es-like SNe Ia. These peculiarities suggest the presence of significant unburned carbon in the inner region and a wide line-forming region along the line of sight. These characteristics suggest that SN 2016ije might originate from the violent merger of a white dwarf binary system, when viewed near an orientation along the iron-group-element cavity caused by the companion star.
Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalThe Astrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2023


  • Type Ia supernovae
  • Supernovae


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