SN 2017ivv: two years of evolution of a transitional Type II supernova

C. P. Gutiérrez*, A. Pastorello, A. Jerkstrand, L. Galbany, M. Sullivan, J. P. Anderson, S. Taubenberger, H. Kuncarayakti, S. González-Gaitán, P. Wiseman, C. Inserra, M. Fraser, K. Maguire, S. Smartt, T. E. Müller-Bravo, I. Arcavi, S. Benetti, D. Bersier, S. Bose, K. A. BostroemJ. Burke, P. Chen, T. W. Chen, M. Della Valle, Subo Dong, A. Gal-Yam, M. Gromadzki, D. Hiramatsu, T. W.S. Holoien, G. Hosseinzadeh, D. A. Howell, E. Kankare, C. S. Kochanek, C. McCully, M. Nicholl, G. Pignata, J. L. Prieto, B. Shappee, K. Taggart, L. Tomasella, S. Valenti, D. R. Young

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the Type II supernova (SN II) SN 2017ivv (also known as ASASSN- 17qp). Located in an extremely faint galaxy (Mr =-10.3 mag), SN 2017ivv shows an unprecedented evolution during the 2 yr of observations. At early times, the light curve shows a fast rise (~6-8 d) to a peak of Mmaxg = -17.84 mag, followed by a very rapid decline of 7.94 ± 0.48 mag per 100 d in the V band. The extensive photometric coverage at late phases shows that the radioactive tail has two slopes, one steeper than that expected from the decay of 56Co (between 100 and 350 d), and another slower (after 450 d), probably produced by an additional energy source. From the bolometric light curve, we estimated that the amount of ejected 56Ni is ~0.059 ± 0.003M⊙. The nebular spectra of SN 2017ivv show a remarkable transformation that allows the evolution to be split into three phases: (1) Ha strong phase (<200 d); (2) Ha weak phase (between 200 and 350 d); and (3) Ha broad phase (>500 d).We find that the nebular analysis favours a binary progenitor and an asymmetric explosion. Finally, comparing the nebular spectra of SN 2017ivv to models suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass of 15-17M⊙.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)974-992
Number of pages19
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume499
Issue number1
Early online date23 Sep 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Funding Information:
Part of the funding for GROND (both hardware as well as personnel) was generously granted from the Leibniz-Prize to Prof. G. Hasinger (DFG grant no. HA 1850/28-1).

Funding Information:
We thank the Las Cumbres Observatory and its staff for its continuing support of the ASAS-SN project. ASAS-SN is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant no. GBMF5490 to the Ohio State University, and NSF grants AST-1515927 and AST-1908570. Development of ASAS-SN has been supported by NSF grant no. AST-0908816, the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, the Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy (CAS-SACA), the Villum Foundation, and George Skestos.

Funding Information:
This work has made use of data from the Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) project. ATLAS is primarily funded to search for near earth asteroids through NASA grants NN12AR55G, 80NSSC18K0284, and 80NSSC18K1575; by products of the NEO search include images and catalogues from the survey area. The ATLAS science products have been made possible through the contributions of the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the South African Astronomical Observatory.

Funding Information:
The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

Funding Information:
CPG and MS acknowledge support from EU/FP7-ERC grant no. 615929. AJ acknowledges funding by ERC Starting grant no. 803189 and Swedish National Research Council grant no. 2018-03799. LG was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 839090. MF is supported by a Royal Society – Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. KM acknowledges support from ERC Starting grant no. 758638. SJS acknowledges funding from STFC grant no. ST/P000312/1. TMB was funded by the CONICYT PFCHA/DOCTORADOBECAS CHILE/2017-72180113. TWC acknowledges EU Funding under Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 842471 MG is supported by the Polish NCN MAESTRO grant no. 2014/14/A/ST9/00121. DAH and GH were supported by NSF grant no. AST-1313484. MN is supported by a Royal Astronomical Society Research Fellowship. Support for GP and JLP is provided by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism’s Millennium Science Initiative through grant no. IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. JLP is also supported by FONDECYT through the grant no. 1191038. Research by KAB and SV is supported by NSF grant no. AST-1813176. CSK is supported by NSF grants AST-1515927 and AST-181440. CSK and BJS are supported by NSF grant no. AST-1907570. BJS is also supported by NSF grants AST-1920392 and AST-1911074. JB, DH, and DAH are supported by NSF AST-1911225.

Funding Information:
This work has been partially supported by the Spanish grant PGC2018-095317-B-C21 within the European Funds for Regional Development (FEDER).

Funding Information:
We thank the anonymous referee for the comments and suggestions that have helped to improve the paper. We are grateful toMarco Limongi andGiacomo Terreran for useful discussion. We thank Richard S. Post its contribution with data from the Post Observatory. CPG and MS acknowledge support from EU/FP7-ERC grant no. 615929. AJ acknowledges funding by ERC Starting grant no. 803189 and Swedish National Research Council grant no. 2018-03799. LG was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 839090. MF is supported by a Royal Society - Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. KM acknowledges support from ERC Starting grant no. 758638. SJS acknowledges funding from STFC grant no. ST/P000312/1. TMB was funded by the CONICYT PFCHA/DOCTORADOBECAS CHILE/2017-72180113. TWC acknowledgesEUFunding underMarie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 842471 MG is supported by the Polish NCN MAESTRO grant no. 2014/14/A/ST9/00121. DAH and GH were supported by NSF grant no. AST-1313484. MN is supported by a Royal Astronomical Society Research Fellowship. Support for GP and JLP is provided by theMinistry ofEconomy,Development, andTourism's Millennium Science Initiative through grant no. IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. JLP is also supported by FONDECYT through the grant no. 1191038. Research by KAB and SV is supported by NSF grant no. AST-1813176. CSK is supported by NSF grants AST-1515927 and AST-181440. CSK and BJS are supported by NSF grant no. AST-1907570. BJS is also supported by NSF grants AST-1920392 and AST-1911074. JB, DH, and DAH are supported by NSF AST-1911225. This work used data collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under programme IDs: 0104.D-0503(A), 0103.D-0393(A), 0103.D- 0440(A), 0102.D-0356(A), 0102.A-9099(A), 0101.A-9099(A), and as part of PESSTO (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for TransientObjects Survey) ESO programme 1103.D-0328 and 199.D- 0143. This work makes use of data from Las Cumbres Observatory telescope network. Part of the funding for GROND (both hardware as well as personnel) was generously granted from the Leibniz-Prize to Prof. G. Hasinger (DFG grant no. HA 1850/28-1). This research uses data obtained through the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the NationalAstronomical Observatories of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Special Fund for Astronomy from the Ministry of Finance. Partially based on observations collected at Copernico 1.82m and Schmidt 67/92 telescopes (Asiago, Italy) of the INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from theUKScience andTechnology Facilities Council. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. TheObservatorywasmade possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank the Las Cumbres Observatory and its staff for its continuing support of the ASAS-SN project. ASAS-SN is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant no. GBMF5490 to the Ohio State University, and NSF grants AST-1515927 and AST- 1908570. Development of ASAS-SN has been supported by NSF grant no. AST-0908816, theMt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, the Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy (CAS- SACA), the Villum Foundation, and George Skestos. This work has made use of data from the Asteroid Terrestrialimpact Last Alert System (ATLAS) project. ATLAS is primarily funded to search for near earth asteroids through NASA grants NN12AR55G, 80NSSC18K0284, and 80NSSC18K1575; by products of the NEO search include images and catalogues from the survey area. The ATLAS science products have been made possible through the contributions of the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, the Queen's University Belfast, the Space Telescope Science Institute, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. This work has been partially supported by the Spanish grant PGC2018-095317-B-C21 within the European Funds for Regional Development (FEDER). This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics.We acknowledge the usage of the HyperLeda data base (http://leda.univ-lyon1.fr). Facilities: NTT (EFOSC2); VLT (MUSE, FORS2); Las Cumbres Observatory; ATLAS; Keck: I (LRIS); 1.82 m Copernico (AFOSC); 67/91 Schmit Telescope; 1.22 Galileo (BC); ASAS-SN; Liverpool Telescope (SPRAT); Tillinghast (FAST); 2.2-m MPG telescope (GROND); Post Observatory SRO Software: PYTHON from https://www.python.org/; IRAF, ESOREFLEX pipeline (Freudling et al. 2013); LPIPE (Perley 2019); GROND pipeline (Kr?hler et al. 2008), SNID (Blondin&Tonry 2007), GELATO (Harutyunyan et al. 2008), CIGALE (Boquien et al. 2019).

Funding Information:
This research uses data obtained through the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Special Fund for Astronomy from the Ministry of Finance.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s).

Copyright:
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Supernovae: general
  • Surveys
  • Techniques: photometric
  • Techniques: spectroscopic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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