Soil Moisture Scatter Radio Networking With Low Power

Spyridon Nektarios Daskalakis, Stylianos Assimonis, Eleftherios Kampianakis, Aggelos Bletsas

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54 Citations (Scopus)
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A low-cost (6 Euro per sensor), low-power (in the order of 200 μW per sensor), with high communication range (on the order of 250 m), scatter radio sensor network is presented, for soil moisture monitoring at multiple locations. The proposed network utilizes analog frequency modulation in a bistatic network architecture (i.e., the emitter and reader are not colocated), while the sensors operate simultaneously, using frequency-division multiple access. In contrast to prior art, this paper utilizes an ultralow-cost software-defined radio reader and offers custom microstrip capacitive sensing with simple calibration, as well as modulation pulses for each scatter radio sensor with 50% duty cycle; the latter is necessary for scalable network designs. The overall root mean squared error below 1% is observed, even for the range of 250 m. This is another small (but concrete) step for the adoption of scatter radio technology as a key enabling technology for scalable, large-scale, low-power, and cost environmental sensor networking.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2338-2346
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number7
Early online date13 Jun 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2016


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