Sound and space: learning from practice

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


3D Audio is often associated with the technical ability to represent 360º sound fields through loudspeaker arrays or headphones. There are numerous technical challenges involved in making 3D-Audio experiences perceptually plausible, be it in the representation of realistic acoustic situations or the delivery of abstract sonic environments. Despite the ability of any given system or technique to deliver spatial audio, sound design is key to engaged spatial listening. Spatial approaches to sound design can be traced back to a wide range of musical practices which consider space as a key factor. Aural spatiality has been an important element of music history since, if not before, Giovanni Gabrielli’s Cori Spezzati with the distribution of choral forces around an audience in the 1600’s. The exploration of space as an element in music creation intensified significantly in the middle of the 20th century, resulting in the development of numerous strategies for creating what are, effectively, immersive sound experiences. These strategies can provide important blueprints for current 3D-Audio development and this chapter outlines paradigms emerging from music creation which can translate into current challenges in designing sound for VR/AR/MR, gaming and 360° recording formats.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication3D Audio
EditorsJustin Patterson, Hyunkook Lee
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9780429491214
ISBN (Print)9781138590069, 9781138590038
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2021

Publication series

NamePerspectives on Music Production


  • sound and space
  • immersive audio
  • 3D audio
  • spatial music


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